In vivo Antigenotoxic and Anticlastogenic Effects of Fresh and Processed Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) Apple Juices.

de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante AA, de Moura Dantas SM, de Sousa Leite A, Matos LA, de Castro E Sousa JM, Picada JN, da Silva J
Volume May 25
Cashew apple juice and cajuina (processed juice) are drinks widely consumed in northeast Brazil. In vitro studies have shown that both juices have antimutagenic activity as well as antioxidant effects. These juices contain vitamins; carotenoids; and phenolic compounds. This in vivo study assessed the antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effects of both drinks against genotoxicity and mutagenicity induced by cyclophosphamide. The comet; micronucleus; and chromosome aberrations tests were used. Male Swiss mice were divided into 6 groups (5 animals per group) and received the following by gavage; 0.15 mL/10 g body weight: group 1; water; group 2; cashew apple juice; group 3; cajuina juice; group 4; cashew apple juice and cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg); group 5; cajuina juice and cyclophosphamide; group 6: cyclophosphamide. Both drinks significantly reduced DNA damage of peripheral blood cells (P<.001); with modulation percentages of 60.82% (cashew apple juice) and 82.19% (cajuina) when compared with the cyclophosphamide group. Cashew apple juice and cajuina modulated cyclophosphamide-induced micronucleus frequency; with up to 80.0% inhibition. Cashew apple juice and cajuina decreased the average number of cells with chromosome aberrations in bone marrow of mice by 53% and 65%; respectively. These findings demonstrate the high antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic potential of cashew apple juice and cajuina in vivo; which can be related to the antioxidant compounds found in both drinks.