BACKGROUND: Food allergy in children can be life-threatening. Component-resolved diagnostics approach to food anaphylaxis is rarely assessed in children. The aim of the study was to identify the food allergen components as the triggers responsible for severe anaphylaxis, with regard to characteristics and associated risks, among children in a large, population-based setting. METHODS: Two hundred and seventy-one children who were hospitalized due to systemic allergic reaction (SAR) and food anaphylaxis were recruited. Medical history was assessed, and culprit allergen source and anaphylaxis severity grade were established. Specific IgE to 112 allergen components using multiplex ImmunoCAP ISAC immunoassay and specific IgE to hazelnut, Cor a 14, and cashew, Ana o 3, using singleplex ImmunoCAP immunoassay were determined. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 237 SAR/anaphylaxis in 237 children. Trigger at allergen component level was defined for every episode. The most common triggers of SAR/anaphylaxis were seeds (50.6%), among them, the storage proteins. Anaphylaxis triggered by Ana o 3, 2S albumin from cashews (aOR = 15.0; 95% CI: 3.27 to 73.47); Tri a 19 from wheat (aOR = 9.93; 95% CI: 1.73 to 56.97); and Cor a 9 from hazelnut (aOR = 6.53; 95% CI: 1.16 to 36.72) had the worst clinical presentation including cardiovascular and severe respiratory symptoms (grade IV-V vs I-III in Cox scale). Thirteen out of 237 (5.5%) SAR/anaphylaxis patients were triggered by Ana o 3. Almost 82% of patients with severe Ana o 3 anaphylaxis were sensitized only to this component and had no concomitant food sensitization. CONCLUSION: Monosensitization to Ana o 3 is, irrespective of other parameters, connected with high risk of severe anaphylaxis.